goat farming in India is becoming very popular because It is one of the finest & established livestock management departments in the country.
Also proven as a highly profitable business idea In India, Its excellent market demand and proper spread give fast profitability and sustainability.
The goat is the main meat-producing animals in India. Along with milk, it is suitable for skin and fiber production as well. A large number of the rural economy is dependent on goats in India.
mostly in arid, semi-arid, and hilly areas of India. There are more than 25% of goat among the total livestock in the country.
Benefits of Goat Farming In India
- Easy to maintain and take care as compared to other farm animals.
- They can adapt themselves to almost every agro-climatic condition and there are very few diseases in them.
- It requires less space, the demand for housing, management, and other additional facilities as compared to other livestock farming, goats can be reared with other farm animals and able to share their home with their owners.
- The cost of infrastructure, production, treatment, and feeding is less.
- The goats are multipurpose animals that can produce milk, meat, fiber, and skin.
Also, read: 7 Methods of Identifying Farm Animals
- There is already an established market in the country, so you don’t have to think about the marketing of the products.
- Goats are smaller in size as compare to other farm animals but reach slaughter age faster.
- There is no religious taboo about goat products like milk and meat.
Starting Goat Farming In India
If you want to start goat farming in India, then you must visit your nearby training center of livestock farming which helps you in choosing the right breed according to your region for optimum production and profit, this also helps in getting practical knowledge about farming problems.
which you can minimize by learning their solutions and also some secret and special business ideas, later on, you can start your own domestic or commercial goat farm. There are some points you must know before starting goat farming in India
Selecting a suitable location
In India, almost all areas are suitable for goat farming, but at the time of selecting land for starting a goat farming business, you have to take care of these points.
- Suitable land which has a fresh and clean water source near it.
- Suitable for the production of greenery like grass and other plant products to minimize the dry feed cost.
- The land will not be far from the market or city, because it leads to higher transportation charges of the commodities, and medical facilities.
- Check out that if any other goat farm is there in your area.
- Good market demand for goat products should be available in the farm area.
- Always try to select land in village areas because the land and labor are easily available at a cheap rate.
- Make sure that their is availability of veterinary services in the chosen area or you can stock medicines and vaccines which are necessary for your farm.
- A good transportation system is also necessary because this helps in efficient selling and purchasing commodities
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Products you want to produce
Selecting The Right Breed is important because there are many breeds available in India but very few are suitable for business or commercial purposes. Here are some most famous breeds in India.
It is a South African goat breed but suitable for farming in India. The Boer goat is primarily a meat goat.
Puberty is reached early, usually about 6 months for the males and 10-12 months for the females.
The mature Boer Goat male weighs between 110-135 kg (~240-300 lbs) and female between 90 and 100 kg (~200-225 lbs).
The Saanen dairy goat originated in Switzerland but it is suitable for commercial milk production in India.
It is a heavy milk-producing goat and usually yields 3-4 percent milkfat this breed can produce 3.8 liters of milk daily, these goats are medium to large in size and the ideal weight of Saanen goat male is 70-90kg and for female 60-70kg.
It is a native Indian goat breed. High productive when it comes to milk and meat, But mostly reared because of the milk. The conception rates are high, around 90%.
Triplets and quadruplets are common. Female goat can produce 2-3 liters of milk daily, the average male weight is about 65-90kg and female about 40-60kg.
Black Bengal Goat
Also, read: Poultry Farming in India: Care And Management
Housing is very important for commercial goat farming in India, but the majority of farmers raise their goats with other livestock animals, this can’t produce optimum production.
So to start a commercial goat farm it is very important to build a good goat housing system. Nowadays Stall feeding is becoming more popular because of its higher production and profit than any other traditional system. while making goat farm in India you must keep these points in mind
- If goats are reared install, it is of utmost importance to provide the exercise paddock.
- An enclosure measuring 12 x 18 m is adequate for 100-125 goats with some shady trees to protect from adverse weather.
- The animals should be allowed in the paddock for a certain period for exercise and fresh air.
- Always try to make the house higher from the ground level to keep it always dry.
- Under village conditions, goats generally do not require any special housing but it should be protected from bad weather and wild animals.
- The house must be protected from the flood or rainy situations by any means because goats hate rain.
- For easy cleaning, make sure the drainage and sanitation system is well set up.
- They like plenty of fresh air and love a clean and dry sleeping place so make a suitable ventilation system for proper light and air.
- A proper temperature control system to control the excess heat in summer and cold in winter.
- Keep the feeding and watering equipment at some distance and clean them properly.
- The goat housing design carries according to the breeds and production, so make sure to ask an expert when making.
- The material can be used for the construction of the house considering the cost.
- Goats come from the open mountains and do not like being closely confined.
- Under farm and city conditions, it is economical to provide a special house.
- 5x 2.5 ft area is sufficient for two goats.
- For milking goat, a separate housed required for the kid.
- The breeding bucks should be housed separately.
The veterinary services are very much important before setting up a commercial goat farming business in India. So make sure that there is proper availability of veterinary services, many goat farmers don’t give much importance to this and hence they face a high mortality rate which puts them into a huge loss. Stock all necessary medicines and vaccines in your farm.
Secrets of Goat Farming In India Care and Management
- Good care is always a key point for optimum production from the farm, monitor their activities. If there is any weak or unhealthy goat is spotted, separate it from the flock and put in isolation pen or cage or any clean and separate place to avoid further contamination of diseases.
- Vaccinate timely to prevent them from unwanted diseases and production loss.
- Always try to keep them in the farm area and don’t allow them to go beyond it.
- In the stall feeding system, try to fulfill their daily dry feed requirement with fresh and nutritious food and a sufficient amount of green fodder.
- Never try to mix polluted or expired food elements with the fresh one.
- Take special care of breeding bucks and kids for a few weeks.
- Keep data of income and expenditure so that you can calculate net income and loss.
External Body Parts of Male (Buck) And Female Goat (Doe)
Handling of goats
- Goats are seldom to handle and frequently learn to come for food and milking when called.
- They dislike being held by horns and ears and care should be taken not to disturb the nostrils.
- For ideal handling, it is preferable to hold them with neck head collars.
- It is done at the age of 2-4 weeks although castration at a later stage is successful (6-9 months).
- Burdizzo castrator is used.
- Spermatic code of each testis should be crushed at two places, ½ inch apart.
- After castration, there may be swelling of the testis which soon becomes normal within 2-3 days.
Advantages of Castration
- The palatability of the meat increases.
- The body weight increases at a rapid rate ie increase the growth rate.
- The quality of the skin becomes superior.
- The profit from such a castrated goat is always more.
- Dehorning is done to avoid keeping horned and pooled goats together.
- It is practiced within one week of birth by using caustic potash or electric dehorner.
Care of the feet
- Goats frequently suffer from overgrown feet, a condition that causes much unnecessary discomfort and even deformity and arthritis in old age.
- These conditions can be prevented by pairing the hooves when they become overgrown.
Also, read: NBAGR Registered cattle Breeds of 2020 | India
Difficulties of Goat Farming In India
- Lack of proper knowledge about goat farming, and lack of using modern farming methods by the farmers.
- Absence or unavailability of specially designed vehicles which helps in transporting the live goat from place to place.
- The beginners without any goat rearing practical knowledge or training face very high mortality due to some fatal diseases like pneumonia, diarrhea, tetanus, and PPR. As they face this loss and lose money for the first time investment they stop rearing goats again
- Many goat producers unable to choose the right breed because of improper knowledge hence the production gets very less and they lose their interest in goat farming. on the other hand choosing, the right breed can increase your farm production.
- Not availability of all vaccines (mainly the PPR), medicines, and doctor facilities throughout the country.
- Some regions of India the producers don’t get the required price for their goat produces, eventually discourage them in a larger production.
- Lack of capital, most of the farmers are unable to buy a sufficient number of goats (50-100) before starting a business, but the secret is the farm with 50-100 goats in it can certainly generate a handsome income.
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Feeding habits of goat
- Due to mobile upper lips and very prehensile tongues, goats are able to graze on very short grass and to browse on the foliage.
- Fastidious eating habits and accept a wide variety of feed and vegetation.
- Goat can distinguish between bitter, sweet, salty, and sour tastes and a higher tolerance for bitter than cattle.
- Goats will consume certain species at definite stages of maturity and reject them at other times.
- The rumen is not developed at birth, but young kid starts picking grass at 2-3 weeks of age and by 3-4 months the rumen is fully functional.
- Browse ( eating of leaves of bush and tree) forms an important part of the diet of the goat because goat can browse 8-9 hrs daily.
- Goats are less efficient in feed conversion of concentrate to animal protein than the pig, high yielding cow, and poultry.
- The digestibility of C F is higher in goats as compared to sheep, cattle, and buffalo.
- The DMI of the dairy goat is 5-7 % of live weight which is higher than meat goat, cattle, buffalo, and sheep (2.5-3.0 %).
- Goats like leguminous fodder as compare to non-legume fodder ie maize, sorghum.
- Higher nutrient conversion efficiency in goat (45-71 % ) as compared to dairy cattle (38%).
- The mineral requirement of the goat is high as compare to cattle due to its high metabolic rate and producing milk rich in minerals
Concentrate requirement for goats
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- Yearling doe required 0.2-0.7 kg concentrate per day with good pasture for optimum growth.
- During the last two months of gestation, the pregnant doe should be fed liberally (0.2-0.7 kg/ day ) depending on the condition of doe so as to rebuild any lost body reserve, to provide for the developing fetus, and to gain some reserve fat before kidding.
- Feed 0.2 – 0.45 kg concentrate/ day during the first 3 weeks of kidding.
- One kg concentrates on maintenance ration per 3 kg milk production.
- Good pasture alone will maintain buck during the off-season but during the breeding season, it required 0.7 kg concentrate per day in addition to good pasture.
Reproduction in Goats
The female goat can reach the puberty stage between 4 to 12 months of age depending upon the level of feeding/nutrition, breed, season of birth, and overall health status.
Reproduction In Male Goat
- Male goat used for breeding called a Breeding buck.
- Having exceptionally high libido.
- At the earliest buck-kid can mate at 6 months of age but conception rate will be poor due to poor quality of semen and less concentrate on sperm.
- One breeding buck is sufficient for 25-30 doe but it can serve up to 50-60 does.
- BB can be used until 8-10 years
Reproduction In Female Goat
- Duration of oestrus 24-48 hrs.
- Oestrus cycle 18-21 days.
- Gestation period 145-153 days.
- Kidding 3 times per two years but under good management two kidding/ year.
- Age of puberty 9-18 months with avg. 13 months.
- Avg. Life of goat 12 years and 10 lactations if kidding took once per year
Symptoms of Heat
- Generally expressed early in the morning
- Shake its tail
- Dislikes to eat feed
- The sudden drop in milk production
- Swelling and slight reddening of the genital opening
- Mounting on other goats irrespective of sex
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